Visual C++ is one of the components of Visual Studio (others include Visual Web Developer for ASP.NET with C# or VB and etc.). Visual C++ 2010 Express is part of the Visual Studio 2010 Express family, a free set of tools that Windows developers at any level can use to create custom applications using basic and expert settings. Microsoft Visual C++ (often abbreviated as MSVC or VC++) is a commercial (free version available), integrated development environment (IDE) product from Microsoft for the C, C++, and C++/CLI programming languages. It features tools for developing and debugging C++ code, especially code written for the Microsoft Windows API, the DirectX API, and the Microsoft .NET Framework.
Click this link for difference between C++ and (Microsoft) Visual C++.
You can get the software from here. It is a 3.16 MB file named vc_web.exe. [This is the only working source I could find when I googled for the setup, you may suggest any other sources if good enough!]
This is how Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express installer (setup) looks like:
This is the IDE you'll get, it is same as Visual Studio:
Open Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express and go to Help > Register Product. Enter this registration key: 6VPJ7-H3CXH-HBTPT-X4T74-3YVY7. Done! You are successfully registered! Congrats, installation completes here! [Key reference: http://legendaryhacks.forumotion.com/t8-microsoft-visual-express-c-2010-registration-key]
All Microsoft Visual IDE 2010 Express Keys:
Microsoft Visual Basic 2010 Express Key: 2KQT8-HV27P-GTTV9-2WBVV-M7X96
Microsoft Visual C# 2010 Express Key: PQT8W-68YB2-MPY6C-9JV9X-42WJV
Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Express Key: 6VPJ7-H3CXH-HBTPT-X4T74-3YVY7
Microsoft Visual Web Developer 2010 Express Key: CY8XP-83P66-WCF9D-G3P42-K2VG3