I am using Windows 8.1 build 1 (or 8.1.1) and I was having issues while installing updates for windows. It was because of Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack 1 (sp1) which was of size 195 MB and it was failing every time I tried to installed it. It was categorized as an important update so I tried following Microsoft's support blogs for the errors but had no success. So today after a little googling I found a solution to this bug.
While I am still not sure what is the reason the update was not installing I have found a solution which worked for me and I am sure it will help you out too! The trick is to simply install Visual Studio manually rather from installing it with Windows Update.
Use this online installer which is of size 794 KB to install Visual Studio 2010 sp1. You can get this installer from https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=23691.